Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a minimally-invasive procedure to remove stones from the kidney by a small puncture wound through the skin. It is most suitable to remove stones of more than 2 cm in size and which are present near the pelvic region. It is usually done under general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia.
RIRS is performed to remove stones without making any incisions on the kidney while using a laser and a viewing tube called a fiber-optic endoscope that goes through the urethra into the kidney. It is performed under general, local or spinal anesthesia. After this surgery patient can go to home very next day.
Ureteroscopy is a procedure to address ureteric stones, and involves the passage of a small telescope, called a ureteroscope, through the urethra and bladder and up the ureter to the point where the stone is located. Once reached to the stone in ureter, stones are break/Fragment using Lithotripter or Laser.
Cystolithotripsy is a therapeutic option indicated for almost all bladder stones, with the exception of the very large ones where Cystolithotomy is indicated. Cystolithotripsy can be done through urethra or Supra-pubic region depending on stones size in bladder. In this technique bladder stones are fragmented in very small pieces using stone crushers, lithotripter or Laser. It is performed under general or spinal anesthesia.
Double J stenting (also known as ureteral stenting) is the procedure to place a thin, flexible plastic tube that is temporarily in ureter to help urine drain from kidney into bladder in case of a ureteric blockage due to stone, stricture or external compression. It has two J shaped coiled ends; one end remains in kidney while other end in bladder, so that it cannot be displaced from its position. The stent may remain from few days to weeks and even months, depending on the situations.